cells, plant cells belong to the type known as eukaryotic.
The most distinctive feature of these is that they have a
cell nucleus, and the DNA molecule in which their genetic
information is encoded lies within this nucleus. On the other
hand, some single-celled creatures such as bacteria have no
cell nucleus, and the DNA molecule is free inside the cell.
This second type of cell is called prokaryotic. This
type of cell structure, with free DNA unconfined within a
nucleus, is an ideal design for bacteria, as it makes possible
the very important process-from the bacterial point of view-of
plasmid transfer (that is, the transfer of DNA from cell to
Because the theory of evolutsion is obliged to
arrange living things in a sequence "from primitive to complex,"
it assumes that prokaryotic cells are primitive, and that
eukaryotic cells evolved from them.
Before moving to the invalidity
of this claim, it will be useful to demonstrate that prokaryotic
cells are not at all "primitive." A bacterium possesses some
2,000 genes; each gene contains about 1,000 letters (links).
This means that the information in a bacterium's DNA is some
2 million letters long. According to this calculation, the
information in the DNA of one bacterium is equivalent to 20
novels, each of 100,000 words.326 Any change
in the information in the DNA code of a bacterium would be
so deleterious as to ruin the bacterium's entire working system.
As we have seen, a fault in a bacterium's genetic code means
that the working system will go wrong-that is, the cell will
Alongside this sensitive structure, which defies
chance changes, the fact that no "intermediate form" between
bacteria and eukaryotic cells has been found makes the evolutionist
claim unfounded. For example, the famous Turkish evolutionist
Professor Ali Demirsoy confesses the groundlessness of the
scenario that bacterial cells evolved into eukaryotic cells,
and then into complex organisms made up of these cells:
One of the most difficult
stages to be explained in evolution is to scientifically
explain how organelles and complex cells developed from
these primitive creatures. No transitional form has been
found between these two forms. One- and multicelled creatures
carry all this complicated structure, and no creature or
group has yet been found with organelles of a simpler construction
in any way, or which are more primitive. In other words,
the organelles carried forward have developed just as they
are. They have no simple and primitive forms.327
One wonders, what is it that encourages Professor
Ali Demirsoy, a loyal adherent of the theory of evolution,
to make such an open admission? The answer to this question
can be given quite clearly when the great structural differences
between bacteria and plant cells are examined.
1- While the walls of bacterial cells are formed
of polysaccharide and protein, the walls of plant cells are
formed of cellulose, a totally different structure.
2- While plant cells possess many organelles,
covered in membranes and possessing very complex structures,
bacterial cells lack typical organelles. In bacterial cells
there are just freely moving tiny ribosomes. But the ribosomes
in plant cells are larger and are attached to the cell membrane.
Furthermore, protein synthesis takes place by different means
in the two types of ribosomes.
3- The DNA structures in plant and bacterial
cells are different.
4- The DNA molecule in plant cells is protected
by a double-layered membrane, whereas the DNA in bacterial
cells stands free within the cell.
5- The DNA molecule in bacterial cells resembles
a closed loop; in other words, it is circular. In plants,
the DNA molecule is linear.
Plants form the fundamental basis of life on earth.
They are an indispensable condition for life, as they
provide food and release oxygen to the air.
6- The DNA molecule in bacterial cells carries
information belonging to just one cell, but in plant cells
the DNA molecule carries information about the whole plant.
For example, all the information about a fruit-bearing tree's
roots, stem, leaves, flowers, and fruit are all found separately
in the DNA in the nucleus of just one cell.
7- Some species of bacteria are photosynthetic,
in other words, they carry out photosynthesis. But unlike
plants, in photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria, for instance),
there is no chloroplast containing chlorophyll and photosynthetic
pigments. Rather, these molecules are buried in various membranes
all over the cell.
8- The biochemistry of messenger
RNA formation in prokaryotic (bacterial) cells and in eukaryotic
(including plant and animal) cells are quite different from
The evolutionist hypothesis that prokaryotic cells (above)
turned into eukaryotic cells over time has no scientific
basis to it.
Messenger RNA plays a vital role for the cell
to live. But although messenger RNA assumes the same vital
role in both prokaryotic cells and in eukaryotic cells, their
biochemical structures are different. J. Darnell wrote the
following in an article published in Science:
The differences in the
biochemistry of messenger RNA formation in eukaryotes compared
to prokaryotes are so profound as to suggest that sequential
prokaryotic to eukaryotic cell evolution seems unlikely.329
The structural differences between bacterial
and plant cells, of which we have seen a few examples above,
lead evolutionist scientists to another dead-end. Although
plant and bacterial cells have some aspects in common, most
of their structures are quite different from one another.
In fact, since there are no membrane-surrounded organelles
or a cytoskeleton (the internal network of protein filaments
and microtubules) in bacterial cells, the presence of several
very complex organelles and cell organization in plant cells
totally invalidates the claim that the plant cell evolved
from the bacterial cell.
Biologist Ali Demirsoy openly
admits this, saying, "Complex cells never developed from primitive
cells by a process of evolution."330
B. Hoagland, The Roots of Life, Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1978, p.18
327 Prof. Dr. Ali Demirsoy, Kalitim
ve Evrim (Inheritance and Evolution), Ankara, Meteksan
Yayınları, p. 79.
328 Robart A. Wallace, Gerald P. Sanders,
Robert J. Ferl, Biology, The Science of Life, Harper
Collins College Publishers, p. 283.
329 Darnell, "Implications of RNA-RNA Splicing
in Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells," Science, vol.
202, 1978, p. 1257.
330 Prof. Dr. Ali Demirsoy, Kalitim
ve Evrim (Inheritance and Evolution), Meteksan Publications,